September 29: Caravaggio was born in 1571

carvaggio

“I am always learning.”
~Caravaggio

Caravaggio was probably the most revolutionary artist of his time, for he abandoned the rules that had guided a century of artists who had idealized both the human and religious experience. He can be said almost single-handedly to have created the Baroque style.
~caravaggio.org

Wikipedia:

Born Michelangelo Merisi or Amerighi
29 September 1571
Milan, Lombardy
Died 18 July 1610 (aged 38)
Porto Ercole, Tuscany
Known for Painting
Notable work See Chronology of works by Caravaggio
Movement Baroque
Patron(s) Cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte

Michelangelo Merisi (Michael Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (29 September 1571 in Milan – 18 July? 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily between 1592 (1595?) and 1610. His paintings, which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting.

Caravaggio trained as a painter in Milan under Simone Peterzano who had himself trained under Titian. In his twenties Caravaggio moved to Rome where there was a demand for paintings to fill the many huge new churches and palazzos being built at the time. It was also a period when the Church was searching for a stylistic alternative to Mannerism in religious art that was tasked to counter the threat of Protestantism. Caravaggio’s innovation was a radical naturalism that combined close physical observation with a dramatic, even theatrical, use of chiaroscuro which came to be known as tenebrism (the shift from light to dark with little intermediate value).

He burst upon the Rome art scene in 1600 with the success of his first public commissions, the Martyrdom of Saint Matthew and Calling of Saint Matthew. Thereafter he never lacked commissions or patrons, yet he handled his success poorly. He was jailed on several occasions, vandalized his own apartment, and ultimately had a death warrant issued for him by the Pope after killing a young man, possibly unintentionally, on May 29, 1606.

An early published notice on him, dating from 1604 and describing his lifestyle three years previously, recounts that “after a fortnight’s work he will swagger about for a month or two with a sword at his side and a servant following him, from one ball-court to the next, ever ready to engage in a fight or an argument, so that it is most awkward to get along with him.” In 1606 he killed a young man in a brawl and fled from Rome with a price on his head. He was involved in a brawl in Malta in 1608, and another in Naples in 1609, possibly a deliberate attempt on his life by unidentified enemies. This encounter left him severely injured. A year later, at the age of 38, he died under mysterious circumstances in Porto Ercole in Tuscany, reportedly from a fever while on his way to Rome to receive a pardon.

Famous while he lived, Caravaggio was forgotten almost immediately after his death, and it was only in the 20th century that his importance to the development of Western art was rediscovered. Despite this, his influence on the new Baroque style that eventually emerged from the ruins of Mannerism was profound. It can be seen directly or indirectly in the work of Rubens, Jusepe de Ribera, Bernini, and Rembrandt, and artists in the following generation heavily under his influence were called the “Caravaggisti” or “Caravagesques”, as well as tenebrists or tenebrosi (“shadowists”). The 20th-century art historian André Berne-Joffroy claimed: “What begins in the work of Caravaggio is, quite simply, modern painting.”

 

The Calling of St Matthew (Caravaggio)
The Calling of St Matthew (Caravaggio)

Supper at Emmaus
Supper at Emmaus

Videos

Caravaggios Secrets (55min)

Caravaggio (32min video with a lot of his paintings)

Caravaggio (1986 film – 1h32m)
British film directed by Derek Jarman. The film is a fictionalised re-telling of the life of Baroque painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio.

 

Inspiration of saint matthew 1602 - by Caravaggio
Inspiration of saint matthew 1602 – by Caravaggio

September 27: Albert Ellis was born in 1913

albert ellis

“The best years of your life are the ones in which you decide your problems are your own. You do not blame them on your mother, the ecology, or the president. You realize that you control your own destiny.”
― Albert Ellis

Wikipedia:

Born September 27, 1913
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Died July 24, 2007 (aged 93)
New York, New York, USA
Residence United States of America
Nationality American
Fields Clinical psychology, philosophy and psychotherapy
Known for Formulating and developing Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy,
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Albert Ellis (September 27, 1913 – July 24, 2007) was an American psychologist who in 1955 developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). He held M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in clinical psychology from Columbia University and American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). He also founded and was the President of the New York City-based Albert Ellis Institute for decades. He is generally considered to be one of the originators of the cognitive revolutionary paradigm shift in psychotherapy and the founder of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Based on a 1982 professional survey of USA and Canadian psychologists, he was considered as the second most influential psychotherapist in history (Carl Rogers ranked first in the survey; Sigmund Freud was ranked third).

Notable awards

  • 2003 award from the Association for Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (UK)
  • Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies 2005 Lifetime Achievement Award
  • Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies 1996 Outstanding Clinician Award
  • American Psychological Association 1985 award for Distinguished professional contributions to Applied Research
  • American Humanist Association 1971 award for “Humanist of the Year”
  • New York slate Psychological Association 2006 Lifetime Distinguished Service Award
  • American Counseling Association1988 ACA Professional Development Award
  • Honesty and Confidablity Test National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists’ Outstanding Contributions to CBT Award
  • Awarded the American Psychological Achievement For Outstanding Lifetime Contributions to Psychology

Videos

Albert Ellis: A Guide to Rational Living – Thinking Allowed DVD w/ Jeffrey Mishlove

21 Ways to Stop Worrying by Dr Albert Ellis, 1991 (audio)

Quotes

“There are three musts that hold us back: I must do well. You must treat me well . And the world must be easy.”
― Albert Ellis

“Even injustice has it’s good points. It gives me the challenge of being as happy as I can in an unfair world.”
― Albert Ellis

“The art of love… is largely the art of persistence. ”
― Albert Ellis

“Acceptance is not love. You love a person because he or she has lovable traits, but you accept everybody just because they’re alive and human.”
― Albert Ellis

“The emotionally mature individual should completely accept the fact that we live in a world of probability and chance, where there are not, nor probably ever will be, any absolute certainties, and should realize that it is not at all horrible, indeed—such a probabilistic, uncertain world.”
― Albert Ellis

“Life is indeed difficult, partly because of the real difficulties we must overcome in order to survive, and partly because of our own innate desire to always do better, to overcome new challenges, to self-actualize. Happiness is experienced largely in striving towards a goal, not in having attained things, because our nature is always to want to go on to the next endeavor.”
― Albert Ellis, The Art & Science of Rational Eating

“If the Martians ever find out how human beings think, they’ll kill themselves laughing.”
― Albert Ellis

“Spirit and soul is horseshit of the worst sort. Obviously there are no fairies, no Santa Clauses, no spirits. What there is, is human goals and purposes as noted by sane existentialists. But a lot of transcendentalists are utter screwballs.”
― Albert Ellis

“If human emotions largely result from thinking, then one may appreciably control one’s feelings by controlling one’s thoughts – or by changing the internalized sentences, or self-talk, with which one largely created the feeling in the first place.”
― Albert Ellis, Rational Psychotherapy and Individual Psychology

You largely constructed your depression. It wasn’t given to you. Therefore, you can deconstruct it.
Albert Ellis

We teach people that they upset themselves. We can’t change the past, so we change how people are thinking, feeling and behaving today.
Albert Ellis

By not caring too much about what people think, I’m able to think for myself and propagate ideas which are very often unpopular. And I succeed.
Albert Ellis

I think the future of psychotherapy and psychology is in the school system. We need to teach every child how to rarely seriously disturb himself or herself and how to overcome disturbance when it occurs.
Albert Ellis

For that again, is what all manner of religion essentially is: childish dependency.
Albert Ellis

albert ellis 2

September 25: William Faulkner was born in 1897

william faulkner

“Never be afraid to raise your voice for honesty and truth and compassion against injustice and lying and greed. If people all over the world…would do this, it would change the earth.”
― William Faulkner

Wikipedia:

Born William Cuthbert Faulkner
September 25, 1897
New Albany, Mississippi, U.S.
Died July 6, 1962 (aged 64)
Byhalia, Mississippi, U.S.
Language English
Nationality American
Period 1919–1962
Notable works The Sound and the Fury
As I Lay Dying
Light in August
Absalom, Absalom!
A Rose for Emily
Notable awards
Spouse Estelle Oldham (1929-1962; His Death)

Signature

William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulkner wrote novels, short stories, a play, poetry, essays, and screenplays. He is primarily known for his novels and short stories set in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County, based on Lafayette County, Mississippi, where he spent most of his life.

Faulkner is one of the most celebrated writers in American literature generally and Southern literature specifically. Though his work was published as early as 1919, and largely during the 1920s and 1930s, Faulkner was relatively unknown until receiving the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature, for which he became the only Mississippi-born Nobel laureate. Two of his works, A Fable (1954) and his last novel The Reivers (1962), won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked his 1929 novel The Sound and the Fury sixth on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century; also on the list were As I Lay Dying (1930) and Light in August (1932). Absalom, Absalom! (1936) is often included on similar lists.

Videos

The Life and Work of William Faulkner in America: Pulitzer Prize Winner (1997)

Shelby Foote on William Faulkner and the American South

Quotes

“Read, read, read. Read everything — trash, classics, good and bad, and see how they do it. Just like a carpenter who works as an apprentice and studies the master. Read! You’ll absorb it.
Then write. If it’s good, you’ll find out. If it’s not, throw it out of the window.”
― William Faulkner

“You cannot swim for new horizons until you have courage to lose sight of the shore.”
― William Faulkner

“We must be free not because we claim freedom, but because we practice it.”
― William Faulkner, Essays, Speeches & Public Letters

“Always dream and shoot higher than you know you can do. Do not bother just to be better than your contemporaries or predecessors. Try to be better than yourself.”
― William Faulkner

“The past is never dead. It’s not even past.”
― William Faulkner, Requiem for a Nun

“In writing, you must kill all your darlings.”
― William Faulkner

“Given the choice between the experience of pain and nothing, I would choose pain.”
― William Faulkner, The Wild Palms

“…I give you the mausoleum of all hope and desire…I give it to you not that you may remember time, but that you might forget it now and then for a moment and not spend all of your breath trying to conquer it. Because no battle is ever won he said. They are not even fought. The field only reveals to man his own folly and despair, and victory is an illusion of philosophers and fools.”
― William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury

“The saddest thing about love, Joe, is that not only the love cannot last forever, but even the heartbreak is soon forgotten.”
― William Faulkner

“The next time you try to seduce anyone, don’t do it with talk, with words. Women know more about words than men ever will. And they know how little they can ever possibly mean.”
― William Faulkner

“Perhaps they were right putting love into books. Perhaps it could not live anywhere else.”
― William Faulkner

“I’m bad and I’m going to hell, and I don’t care. I’d rather be in hell than anywhere where you are. ”
― William Faulkner

“Don’t be ‘a writer’. Be writing.”
― William Faulkner

“Memory believes before knowing remembers. Believes longer than recollects, longer than knowing even wonders.”
― William Faulkner

“Wonder. Go on and wonder.”
― William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury

“If a story is in you, it has to come out.”
― William Faulkner

“Clocks slay time… time is dead as long as it is being clicked off by little wheels; only when the clock stops does time come to life.”
― William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury

“I decline to accept the end of man… I refuse to accept this. I believe that man will not merely endure: he will prevail. He is immortal, not because he alone among the creatures has an inexhaustible voice, but because he has a soul, a spirit capable of compassion and sacrifice and endurance. The poet’s, the writer’s, duty is to write about these things. It is his privilege to help man endure by lifting his heart, by reminding him of the courage and honor and hope and pride and compassion and pity and sacrifice which have been the glory of his past. The poet’s voice need not merely be the record of man, it can be one of the props, the pillars to help him endure and prevail.”
― William Faulkner

“Pouring out liquor is like burning books.”
― William Faulkner

“It’s a shame that the only thing a man can do for eight hours a day is work. He can’t eat for eight hours; he can’t drink for eight hours; he can’t make love for eight hours. The only thing a man can do for eight hours is work. ”
― William Faulkner

william faulkner 2

September 23: Sigmund Freud died in 1939

sigmund freud

“One day, in retrospect, the years of struggle will strike you as the most beautiful.”
― Sigmund Freud

Wikipedia:

Born Sigismund Schlomo Freud
6 May 1856
Freiberg in Mähren, Moravia, Austrian Empire
(now Příbor, Czech Republic)
Died 23 September 1939 (aged 83)
Hampstead, London
Nationality Austria
Fields Neurology, psychologypsychotherapy, psychoanalysis
Institutions University of Vienna
Alma mater University of Vienna (MD, 1881)
Academic advisors
Notable awards
Spouse Martha Bernays (m. 1886–1939, his death)
Signature

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist, now known as the father of psychoanalysis. Freud qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna in 1881, and then carried out research into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy at the Vienna General Hospital. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology in the same year and became an affiliated professor (professor extraordinarius) in 1902.

In creating psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud’s redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the mechanisms of repression as well as for elaboration of his theory of the unconscious as an agency disruptive of conscious states of mind. Freud postulated the existence of libido, an energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt. In his later work Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture.

Psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy, and across the humanities. As such, it continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause. Nonetheless, Freud’s work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden‘s poetic tribute, by the time of Freud’s death in 1939, he had become “a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives”.

Videos

PSYCHOTHERAPY – Sigmund Freud (the school of life)

SIGMUND FREUD – THE FATHER OF PSYCHOANALYSIS – NOVA – Discovery History Psychology (documentary)

Quotes

“Being entirely honest with oneself is a good exercise.”
― Sigmund Freud

“We are never so defenseless against suffering as when we love.”
― Sigmund Freud

“Most people do not really want freedom, because freedom involves responsibility, and most people are frightened of responsibility.”
― Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents

“Out of your vulnerabilities will come your strength.”
― Sigmund Freud

“Unexpressed emotions will never die. They are buried alive and will come forth later in uglier ways.”
― Sigmund Freud

“He that has eyes to see and ears to hear may convince himself that no mortal can keep a secret. If his lips are silent, he chatters with his fingertips; betrayal oozes out of him at every pore.”
― Sigmund Freud, Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis

“In so doing, the idea forces itself upon him that religion is comparable to a childhood neurosis, and he is optimistic enough to suppose that mankind will surmount this neurotic phase, just as so many children grow out of their similar neurosis.”
― Sigmund Freud, The Future of an Illusion (The Standard Edition)

“Religious doctrines … are all illusions, they do not admit of proof, and no one can be compelled to consider them as true or to believe in them.”
― Sigmund Freud, The Future of an Illusion (The Standard Edition)

“Immorality, no less than morality, has at all times found support in religion.”
― Sigmund Freud, The Future of an Illusion (The Standard Edition)

“In the depths of my heart I can’t help being convinced that my dear fellow-men, with a few exceptions, are worthless.”
― Sigmund Freud, Letters of Sigmund Freud, 1873-1939

“No, our science is no illusion. But an illusion it would be to suppose that what science cannot give us we can get elsewhere.”
― Sigmund Freud, The Future of an Illusion (The Standard Edition)

“It is impossible to escape the impression that people commonly use false standards of measurement — that they seek power, success and wealth for themselves and admire them in others, and that they underestimate what is of true value in life.”
― Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents

“Whoever loves becomes humble. Those who love have , so to speak , pawned a part of their narcissism.”
― Sigmund Freud

“Everywhere I go I find a poet has been there before me.”
― Sigmund Freud

“Religion is a system of wishful illusions together with a disavowal of reality, such as we find nowhere else but in a state of blissful hallucinatory confusion. Religion’s eleventh commandment is “Thou shalt not question.”
― Sigmund Freud, The Future of an Illusion (The Standard Edition)

“Religion is an illusion and it derives its strength from the fact that it falls in with our instinctual desires.”
― Sigmund Freud, New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis

“Flowers are restful to look at. They have neither emotions nor conflicts.”
― Sigmund Freud

“The virtuous man contents himself with dreaming that which the wicked man does in actual life.”
― Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams

Sigmund-Freud-1935

September 18: Samuel Johnson was born in 1709

dr_johnson

“Curiosity is, in great and generous minds, the first passion and the last.”
― Samuel Johnson, Works of Samuel Johnson

Wikipedia:

Born 18 September 1709
(O.S. 7 September)
Lichfield, Staffordshire, England
Died 13 December 1784 (aged 75)
London
Occupation Essayist, lexicographer, biographer, poet
Language English
Nationality British
Ethnicity English
Spouse Elizabeth Porter (née Jervis)

Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709 [O.S. 7 September] – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer. Johnson was a devout Anglican and committed Tory, and has been described as “arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history”. He is also the subject of “the most famous single work of biographical art in the whole of literature”: James Boswell’s Life of Samuel Johnson.

Born in Lichfield, Staffordshire, Johnson attended Pembroke College, Oxford for just over a year, before his lack of funds forced him to leave. After working as a teacher he moved to London, where he began to write for The Gentleman’s Magazine. His early works include the biography Life of Mr Richard Savage, the poems London and The Vanity of Human Wishes, and the play Irene.

After nine years of work, Johnson’s A Dictionary of the English Language was published in 1755. It had a far-reaching effect on Modern English and has been described as “one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship”. This work brought Johnson popularity and success. Until the completion of the Oxford English Dictionary 150 years later, Johnson’s was viewed as the pre-eminent British dictionary. His later works included essays, an influential annotated edition ofThe Plays of William Shakespeare, and the widely read tale The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia. In 1763, he befriended James Boswell, with whom he later travelled to Scotland; Johnson described their travels in A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland. Towards the end of his life, he produced the massive and influential Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets, a collection of biographies and evaluations of 17th- and 18th-century poets.

Johnson was a tall and robust man. His odd gestures and tics were disconcerting to some on first meeting him. Boswell’s Life, along with other biographies, documented Johnson’s behaviour and mannerisms in such detail that they have informed the posthumous diagnosis of Tourette syndrome, a condition not defined or diagnosed in the 18th century. After a series of illnesses, he died on the evening of 13 December 1784, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. In the years following his death, Johnson began to be recognised as having had a lasting effect on literary criticism, and he was claimed by some to be the only truly great critic of English literature.

[BBC 4] Samuel Johnson: The Dictionary Man (59min)

Will Durant—The Life of Samuel Johnson (90min audio)

Quotes

“Men know that women are an overmatch for them, and therefore they choose the weakest or the most ignorant. If they did not think so, they never could be afraid of women knowing as much as themselves.”
― Samuel Johnson, A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland and The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides

“I hate mankind, for I think myself one of the best of them, and I know how bad I am.”

“He who makes a beast of himself gets rid of the pain of being a man.”

“A writer only begins a book. A reader finishes it.”

“What is written without effort is in general read without pleasure.”

“My congratulations to you, sir. Your manuscript is both good and original; but the part that is good is not original, and the part that is original is not good. ”

“Sir, when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford.”

“Curiosity is one of the permanent and certain characteristics of a vigorous intellect.”

“I never desire to converse with a man who has written more than he has read.”

“There can be no friendship without confidence, and no confidence without integrity.”

“Few things are impossible to diligence and skill. Great works are performed not by strength, but by perseverance.”

“I would rather be attacked than unnoticed. For the worst thing you can do to an author is to be silent as to his works.”

“The chains of habit are too weak to be felt until they are too strong to be broken.”

“Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.”

“It is better to suffer wrong than to do it, and happier to be sometimes cheated than not to trust.”

“You raise your voice when you should reinforce your argument.”

“Hell is paved with good intentions.”

“The greatest part of a writer’s time is spent in reading, in order to write: a man will turn over half a library to make one book.”

“Allow children to be happy in their own way, for what better way will they find?”

“It is necessary to hope… for hope itself is happiness.”

“What we hope ever to do with ease, we must first learn to do with diligence.”

“Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information on it.”

“To keep your secret is wisdom, but to expect others to keep it is folly.”

“Nothing […] will ever be attempted, if all possible objections must be first overcome.”